The Olympic bronze medallist, formerly with Edinburgh University but now playing for London’s Hampstead and Westminster, has 107 Scotland caps to her name, as well as 62 Great Britain ones.
The Selkirk-raised 28-year-old will be backed up by namesake Katie Robertson, named as vice-captain.
The other Robertson, from Freuchie in Fife, plays for Edinburgh University and has been capped 50 times.
Their appointments are part of the creation of a new six-strong core player group also featuring Great Britain squad members Amy Costello and Fiona Burnet, plus Scotland’s most experienced player, Becky Ward, and Eve Pearson as head coach Chris Duncan targets a place for Scotland’s women in the world’s top 10.
Scotland’s new skipper said: “I’m very proud.
“I’ve played over 100 games for Scotland, and every time it’s a proud moment, but captaining your country is a huge honour and it’s not something I ever thought would happen.
“I’ve been lucky to play in the squad under some amazing captains, and it feels special to be added to that list.
“We’ve had a lot of progression recently, with good wins against Ireland and Wales, and the squad are in an exciting, fresh place, so I’m looking to help drive that and use my experience to help us keep moving forward.
“It’s a huge summer ahead. Obviously the Commonwealth Games is pretty much the pinnacle of any Scottish hockey player’s career, so that’s a huge event, but then we have a huge tournament in France which is arguably more important because it’s all about retaining European status.
“It’s exciting to get a clear indicator of where we’re at.
“Obviously one of our main aims is to work towards being in the top 10 in the world, so this summer will be a good start on that journey.”
Her vice-captain, 21, said: “I’m very proud, humbled and a little shocked to be asked to take on the role of vice-captain, and I’m really looking forward to the next few years ahead.
“The squad are very young and exciting, and I think there are exciting times ahead for everyone.
“We had really good results against Ireland, with two wins out of three, and even in the game we lost, we were still able to score four goals, and scoring goals has been something we’ve struggled with as a nation in the past, so it’s exciting.
“We’re scoring lots of goals, and there’s a really good atmosphere amongst the squad.
“We’ve been set the target of top 10 in the world, and obviously that doesn’t happen overnight, so we have a few years to go until we get there.
“The journey to get there is the exciting part.
“We’ve got lots of young players in the squad already and with more coming through who are already knocking at the door, so it’s exciting to see those new players develop and come into the squad and see what we can do in the next five or six years, not just the next one or two.”
Duncan added: “We all must lead by example in our everyday actions and behaviours to be the best role models possible for those who come after us.
“Sarah and Katie embody all the characteristics we would look to see from players in our squad and, critically, they possess a ferocious desire to succeed and help others.
“I have been amazed at their ability to drive standards and push others to constantly better themselves but also at their empathy and understanding of the best route forward to make us better, not just as hockey players and a team on the pitch, but as a group of people.
“They both possess a mindset that will leave no stone unturned in pursuit of collective success and they will lead our squad with pride and energy in the coming months and years.”